A Schengen Visa is a visa for visiting/travelling to and within the Schengen Area. The Schengen Area is comprised of 26 countries that have agreed to allow free movement of their citizens within this area as a single country. Schengen area covers the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Liechtenstein.
Regarding the purpose of the travel, there are several types of a Schengen visa issued by the designated embassy/consulate. There are 3 types: Uniform Schengen Visas (USV), Limited territorial validity visas (LTV) and National visas.